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Understanding Lung Cancer: Types, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

Valeria Martin

Lung cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in the lung tissue and is responsible for the exchange of gases in the body. It is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. There are two main types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). NSCLC is the most common type, accounting for about 85% of all lung cancers. SCLC is less common and is more aggressive. Unfortunately, lung cancer is often asymptomatic in its early stages, which makes it difficult to detect. Risk factors for lung cancer include smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, exposure to radon gas, exposure to certain chemicals and substances, such as asbestos, and a family history of lung cancer. Smoking is by far the most significant risk factor for lung cancer,accounting for about 85% of all cases. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. The prognosis for lung cancer is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of only 19%. Prevention of lung cancer is crucial, especially since smoking is the leading cause of the disease. The best way to prevent lung cancer is to quit smoking and to avoid exposure to second-hand smoke. In recent years, there have been significant advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer, including low-dose CT screening, targeted therapies, and immunotherapies. However, lung cancer remains a significant public health concern with an estimated 235,760 new cases of lung cancer expected to be diagnosed in the United States in 2021, and an estimated 131,880 people expected to die from the disease.


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